Can be simply described as an uncomfortable feeling or a sensation of sickness which may or may not be followed by vomiting.
Is an effortless regurgitation of stomach contents.
Nausea and vomiting is caused by a wide variety of conditions which stimulate the vomiting receptors in the brain.
Vomiting may lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, aspiration pneumonia.
How to Manage
A detailed history helps to identify the underlying cause.
- Sudden onset of vomiting without any associated pain may suggest food poisoning, infectious gastroenteritis or use of any dugs
- Vomiting along with abdominal pain may be caused by acute abdominal conditions like appendicitis, acute gastritis or intestinal obstruction.
- Early weeks of pregnancy causes nausea, morning sickness and vomiting due to hormonal changes.
- Migraine headaches are commonly associated with nausea and sometimes vomiting too.
Laboratory tests that should be done include
- Serum Electrolytes
- Blood glucose
- Urea and Creatinine
- Serum Amylase
- Liver function tests
- Pregnancy test
Imaging Studies that can help find out the cause include
- Flat and upright abdominal X ray
- Ultrasound of abdomen
- CT scan abdomen
- Barium studies
Medications that help includes different antiemetic medicines which are given to control vomiting.
For mild, self limited acute vomiting no treatment is needed , just give clear fluids and soft easily digestible small quantities of food.
In cases of severe vomiting IV fluids are needed to correct and prevent dehydration.