Back pain is one of the most common reasons that adults see their physician. Most cases of acute back pain are a result of mechanical causes. Only a few cases have an underlying serious pathology Acute back pain is usually treated with reassurance, returning to activities, and acetaminophen
with or without an NSAID. Psychological factors increase the risk of development of chronic pain. Chronic back pain is difficult to treat and the best outcomes are typically achieved by a multidisciplinary approach.
1. Acute: Back pain that comes on suddenly and lasts less than 6 weeks is classified as Acute Back pain.
2. Chronic: Back pain that lasts for more than 3 months is classified as chronic and is relatively less common as compared to acute back pain.
Causes And Risk factors: The back pain may originate from the muscles, nerves, bones, joints or other structures in the spine. Sometimes it may also be referred from internal structures like pancreas and gallbladder. A few causes and risk factors are listed below:
- Old age.
- Manual labor or excessive back strain.
- Osteoarthritis of the spine.
- Lack of physical exercise.
- Psychological conditions like depression and anxiety.
- Bulging or rupture vertebral disc.
- Skeletal irregularities
- Ankylosing spondylitis.
- Underlying malignancy.
- Kidney stones or infection
- Cauda equina syndrome
Clinical features: The episodes of back pain may be acute, sub acute on chronic depending upon the underlying cause. The pain be characterized as a dull ache, shooting or piercing pain or a burning sensation. The pain may radiate into the legs and feet.
The most common area of pain is the lower back or the lumbar region.