Saturday, August 21, 2021

Nausea And Vomiting



Can be simply described as an uncomfortable feeling or a sensation of sickness which may or may not be followed by vomiting.


Is an effortless regurgitation of  stomach contents.

Nausea and vomiting is caused by a wide variety of conditions which stimulate the vomiting receptors in the brain.

Vomiting may lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, aspiration pneumonia.

How to Manage

A detailed history helps to identify the underlying cause.

-         Sudden onset of vomiting without any associated pain may suggest food poisoning, infectious gastroenteritis or use of any dugs

-         Vomiting along with abdominal pain may be caused by acute abdominal conditions like appendicitis, acute gastritis or intestinal obstruction.

-         Early weeks of pregnancy causes nausea, morning sickness and vomiting due to hormonal changes.

-         Migraine headaches are commonly associated with nausea and sometimes vomiting too.

Laboratory tests that should be done include

-         Serum Electrolytes

-         Blood glucose

-         Urea and Creatinine

-         Serum Amylase

-         Liver function tests

-         TSH

-         Pregnancy test

Imaging Studies that can help find out the cause include

-         Flat and upright abdominal X ray

-         Ultrasound of abdomen

-         CT scan abdomen

-         Barium studies

Medications that help includes different antiemetic medicines which are given to control vomiting.

For mild, self limited acute vomiting no treatment is needed , just give clear fluids and soft easily digestible small quantities of food.

In cases of severe vomiting IV fluids are needed to correct and prevent dehydration.

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