Tuesday, April 25, 2017

Introduction To Vitamin D Deficiency

Vitamin D also commonly known as Sunshine vitamin is a fat soluble vitamin and essential to normal body growth and development. It is produced in the body in response to skin being exposed to sunlight. The deficiency of vitamin d may occur due to either inadequate nutritional intake or inadequate sunlight exposure.

Sources Of Vitamin D:There are two forms of Vitamin D known as D2 and D3.
  • Vitamin D2 also known as Ergocalciferol basically comes from fortified foods, plant foods and supplements.
  • VitaminD3 also known as Cholecalciferol comes from fortified foods, Animal sources like fish, eggs and liver as well as can be synthesized in the body when the skin is exposed to ultraviolet rays from the sun.
Symptoms Of Vitamin D Deficiency:
Mild deficiency of Vitamin D is usually not associated with any symptoms. The main symptoms are bone pain and muscle weakness. The deficiency of Vitamin D is associated with a number of different health disorders like:
  • Rickets in children characterized by impaired growth and deformity of long bones.
  • Osteomalacia in adults characterized by muscle weakness and bone fragility
  • Osteoporosis a condition with reduced bone mineral density and increased risk of fractures.
  • Increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease.
  • Cognitive impairment in older adults
  • Muscle twitching or fasciculations .
  • Severe asthma in children
  • Increased risk of cancer.
  • Increased chanced of being diagnosed with Schizophrenia
Causes of Vitamin D Deficiency:
There are a number of reasons an individual may have a deficiency of Vitamin D. These include:

1. Lack of consumption of Vitamin D in the diet mostly because of following a strict vegetarian diet.

2. Limited exposure to sunlight by people who are usually home bound or wear long sleeves and robes with head cover due to religious reasons.

3. People with dark skin limits the skin’s ability to make vitamin D in response to sunlight exposure.

4. Decreased ability of kidneys to convert Vitamin d to its active form either due to aging or reduced kidney function due to any kind of renal disease.

5. Decreased ability of digestive tract to adequately absorb vitamin D.

6. patients who are obese more frequently have decreased vitamin D levels because vitamin d is extracted from the blood by fat cells.

Classification Of Hypovitaminosis D:
Insufficient 50-100 nmol/L (20-40 ng/mL)
Mild 25–50 nmol/L (10–20 ng/mL)
Moderate 12.5–25.0 nmol/L (5-10 ng/mL)
Severe < 12.5 nmol/L (< 5 ng/mL)

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